Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS) check:

An employer or an individual person may apply for a DBS check. Further information is available on the UK government website at: https://www.gov.uk/find-out-dbs-check. This includes how you can find out what level of DBS you may need and has a link to apply for a basic check for yourself. To get a check see here https://www.gov.uk/request-copy-criminal-record

You can use other services, such as https://crbdirect.org.uk/  which is an independent service not affiliated to the Government, or if you are an employer, you may be able to register with a company such as: https://www.sonographersmedical.com/dbs-crb-checks/

For both standard and enhanced checks from 28th November 2020 a change was made such that childhood cautions are no longer disclosed, and a rule that meant someone with more than one conviction had all their convictions disclosed, regardless of offence or length of time, has been abolished. For further information on this please see: www.unlock.org.uk/policy-issues/specific-policy-issues/filtering/what-will-be-the-impact-of-the-changes-to-filtering/

The Disclosure Calculator

The Disclosure Calculator is a web tool that can be used to find out when a criminal record becomes spent under the Rehabilitation of Offenders Act 1974 (ROA). https://hub.unlock.org.uk/disclosure-calculator/ This applies to England and Wales

Supporting children and families affected by a family member’s offending – A Practitioner’s Guide. Lindsay Sutherland and Polly Wright.

© Barnardo’s, 2017

A practical informative guide for practitioners working with children and families affected by a family member’s offending. The stages of the criminal justice system are outlined with common questions which may be asked during this process and how to address these. It is practical in approach e.g regarding contact and visits to a parent in prison. It aims to provide an insight into the particular importance of children’s rights, and to understand the impact of offending on children and their families. Incorporating the needs of offenders’ children and families into professional assessments and support plans is covered.


Online Debate 5: Developing a worldly understanding of sexual offenders and their management 2014-2016.

A debate funded by the Leverhulme trus tand run by the Internet Watch Foundation regarding  the increasing importance of cyberspace in sexual offending, in particular in relation to online child sexual abuse and online child sexual exploitation.

Weidman AC, Sowden WJ, BergMK , Kross E. (2020) Punish or Protect? How Close Relationships Shape Responses to Moral Violations.

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 46(5): 693–708.

Abstract: People have fundamental tendencies to punish immoral actors and treat close others altruistically. What happens when these tendencies collide—do people punish or protect close others who behave immorally? Across 10 studies (N = 2,847), we show that people consistently anticipate protecting close others who commit moral infractions, particularly highly severe acts of theft and sexual harassment. This tendency emerged regardless of gender, political orientation, moral foundations, and disgust sensitivity and was driven by concerns about self-interest, loyalty, and harm. We further find that people justify this tendency by planning to discipline close others on their own. We also identify a psychological mechanism that mitigates the tendency to protect close others who have committed severe (but not mild) moral infractions: self-distancing. These findings highlight the role that relational closeness plays in shaping people’s responses to moral violations, underscoring the need to consider relational closeness in future moral psychology work.


Understanding and Addressing Adult Sexual Attraction to Children. A Study of Paedophiles in Contemporary Society. Sarah D. Goode.

Routledge, Abingdon, Oxon.

This book draws together a wealth of material from many different areas to form a picture of what adult sexual attraction to children means within the context of our culture and our understandings of sexuality. Information widely available in libraries or on the Internet account is covered along with online offending. The majority of the text however, is about the findings from the author’s original research between 2006 and 2008 which explores the everyday experiences and views of ‘minor-attracted adults’ (MAAs) themselves. This includes fantasies and what respondents found most attractive, with the distinction between fantasy and reality appearing to be recognised by most. Interactions with others within and outside the online paedophile community are examined. The provision and form of support is reported and findings suggest that those who have no support outside the paedophile community are more likely to agree with sexual contact with children, while those who have support available from non-paedophiles are more likely to hold ‘non-contact’ views. That support may not be with approval but with acceptance.

Issues which stop adults preventing child abuse and initiatives in addressing adult sexual attraction to children e.g Stop It Now are covered. Finally, keeping children safe with guidance is given.

The whole intention of this book has been to enable us, as a society, to understand that adult sexual attraction to children does exist and that the best way to address it is through awareness, empathy and clear boundaries, by accepting that the way to protect children is to allow us all to talk openly about our feelings, no matter what they are, while holding ourselves responsible for our actions, no matter what they are”.


The Paraphilias – Changing Suits in the Education of Sexual interest Paradigms. J Paul Fedoroff.

Oxford University Press. 2019.

This book examines current and past perspectives concerning unconventional sexual interests. Extensively referenced, it challenges the dogma that sexual interests are immutably determined during a single critical period and are thereafter unchangeable. It is written for mental health clinicians and specialists in the fields of sexology, forensic psychology, and psychiatry, but is also of interest to anyone whose lives have been affected by a paraphilia.

Birchard T. (2017) Compulsive sexual behaviour and religious practice.

Chapter in: The Routledge International Handbook of Sexual Addiction.


The information gathered from both American and British projects on the prevalence rates of clergy sexual misconduct suggests the clergy have substantially higher rates of sexual misconduct than other caring professionals. This chapter takes the view that religious vocation, no matter the religious tradition, is often about the use of religion and religious practice to manage endemic shame caused by narcissistic damage. Sexual behaviour can also be a way of escaping from this endemic shame. It is the author’s view that the clergy have these higher rates of misconduct because religious behaviour and sexual behaviour are both solutions to the pain of narcissistic damage.


Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers (ATSA) Conferences.

Details of papers presented can be found on the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers (ATSA) website: https://www.atsa.com/select-atsa-conference-handouts

The Australia and New Zealand association (ANZATSA) has further detail of the 2019 conference presentations at:  https://www.griffith.edu.au/criminology-institute/news-events/2019-anzatsa-conference

Wortley R, Leclerc B, Reynald DM, Smallbone S. (2019). What Deters Child Sex Offenders? A Comparison Between Completed and Noncompleted Offences. Journal of Interpersonal Violence,

Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 34 (20), 4303-4327. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260519869235


This study examined the role of the reaction of the victim, the nature of the physical setting, and the proximity of third parties in deterring offenders from completing an act of child sexual abuse (CSA). A self-report study was conducted with 238 adult males serving a custodial sentence for CSA, of whom 82 identified an occasion in which they had tried to have sexual contact with a child but did not because they were stopped or discouraged. We examined the situational characteristics of the noncompleted offense and compared these with the most recent completed offense by the same offenders. The most common reason for stopping the noncompleted offense, given by more than half of the participants, was the negative reaction of the child, and in particular, the direct request by the child to stop. Actual or potential actions by third parties were the next most cited reasons, with around a quarter of cases stopped because the offender was interrupted. In comparison to the noncomplete offense, in the completed offense the child was more likely to be younger and to be perceived as a willing participant. The most common suggestion for what might have stopped the completed offense, endorsed almost universally, was a negative reaction from the child. Factors that increased the chance of being detected—someone being nearby and the possibility of being observed—were also strongly endorsed. We argue that the findings provide the basis for devising offense-focused prevention strategies for CSA.

N.B Figures appear at the end of the accepted version given here.