West B. (2007) Using the Good Way model to work positively with adults and youth with intellectual difficulties and sexually abusive behaviour.

Journal of Sexual Aggression 13 (3), 253-266.


The Good Way model is being used increasingly in New Zealand and Australia in both community-based and residential programmes for the treatment of adolescents and adults with intellectual difficulties who have sexually abusive behaviour. It is also being used with children and, in adapted forms, with mainstream adolescents and people of indigenous cultures. Early process evaluations of the model have been positive. This paper focuses on work with those with mild intellectual disabilities, and proposes that, in addition to being a useful framework for treatment, the Good Way model can also be used both as a practical, constructive neutralization and as a way to develop adaptive ‘‘explicit theories’’ with these clients, particularly when it is used jointly with the preferred clinical approach of developing individualized, self-narratives of desistance and rehabilitation.

Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232902420_The_Good_Way_model_A_strengths-based_approach_for_working_with_young_people_especially_those_with_intellectual_difficulties_who_have_sexually_abusive_behaviour

Herring, B. (2017) A Framework for Categorizing Chronically Problematic Sexual Behavior, Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity,

24:4, 242-247, DOI: 10.1080/10720162.2017.1394947

This article recognizes that many forms of problematic sexual behavior can be reduced or eliminated by changing either sexual or nonsexual components of a person’s life. The framework describes sexual behavior as problematic if it consistently:

  • Conflicts with a person’s commitments and/or
  • Conflicts with a person’s values and/or
  • Conflicts with a person’s self-control and/or
  • Results in negative consequences and/or
  • Lacks fundamental sexual responsibility

The framework does not use the type or frequency of sexual behavior as an assessment variable and does not consider causes or treatment of problematic sexual behavior.

Gannon, T. A., Olver, M. E., Mallion, J. S., & James, M. (2019). Does specialized psychological treatment for offending reduce recidivism?

A meta-analysis examining staff and program variables as predictors of treatment effectiveness. Clinical Psychology Review, 73. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2019.101752.

The analysis looks at domestic violence, general violence and sexual offences. Across all programs, offense specific recidivism was 13.4% for treated individuals and 19.4% for untreated comparisons over an average follow up of 66.1 months. Relative reductions in offense specific recidivism were 32.6% for sexual offense programs, 36.0% for domestic violence programs, and 24.3% for general violence programs. The meta-analysis is the most exhaustive to date that examines the effects of specialized psychological treatments for sexual offending, including 11 new studies since Schmucker and Lösel’s (2015) original searches in 2010. The sexual recidivism reductions that we found for these programs were higher than, or at the top end of, those reported in previous meta-analyses.

Allardyce, S., Wylie, N., Ritchie, B., Sharpe, M., & Barron, I. (2017, Mar 20). Preventing Adolescent Harmful Sexual Behaviour: A NOTA Think Piece. University of Dundee.

This paper presents a very informative review of the research available on harmful sexual behaviours (HSB) and proposes ideas for prevention, and outlines some of the current gaps in research which would help with more effective intervention to reduce the risk of sexually abusive behaviours in adolescence.


Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of the Paraphilias Kaplan MS, Krueger (2012).

Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci – Vol. 49 – No 4.

This is a literature review. Conclusions: Cognitive-behavioral therapy is the most prominent therapy for sexual offenders. Although reports from individual programs and meta-analyses support its efficacy, overall, the strength of the evidence base supporting this therapy is weak and much more empirical research is needed.